Louis Center for Children with
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a
developmental disorder. It is characterized primarily by "the co-existence of
attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring
infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age.
ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in
children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in
about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children. It is a chronic disorder with 30
to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have
symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping
mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. It is estimated
that 4.7 percent of American adults live with ADHD. Standardized rating scales
such as WHO's Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale can be used for ADHD screening and
assessment of the disorder's symptoms' severity.
ADHD is diagnosed two to four times more frequently in boys than in girls,
though studies suggest this discrepancy may be partially due to subjective bias
of referring teachers. ADHD management usually involves some combination of
medications, behavior modifications, lifestyle changes, and counseling. Its
symptoms can be difficult to differentiate from other disorders, increasing the
likelihood that the diagnosis of ADHD will be missed. In addition, most
clinicians have not received formal training in the assessment and treatment of
ADHD, in particular in adult patients.
ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since
the 1970s. The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers,
parents and the media. Topics include the actuality of the disorder, its causes,
and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment. Most healthcare providers
accept that ADHD is a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community
centering mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated. The American Medical
Association concluded in 1998 that the diagnostic criteria for ADHD are based on
extensive research and, if applied appropriately, lead to the diagnosis with
There are 3 primary subtypes.
AD/HD predominately inattentive type
Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
Does not appear to
Struggles to follow
through on instructions.
Has difficulty with
Avoids or dislikes
tasks requiring sustained mental effort.
Is easily distracted
Is forgetful in
predominately hyperactive-impulsive type
Has difficulty remaining seated.
Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair.
Difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
Acts as if driven by a motor.
Blurts out answers before questions have been completed.
Difficulty waiting or taking turns.
Interrupts or intrudes upon others.
Louis Center Seremban, N.S. Malaysia Phone 06 631 6971