What it feels like -
When speaking to groups, I explain that being dyslexic is like running a 100-meter track race. In my lane I have hurdles, but no one else does. I have this feeling that it's unfair that I’m the only one with hurdles but don’t know how to explain it. Soon the feeling leaves me as the starting gun shoots and I take off running. I try running like the other classmates, because we have all had the same education on how to run. But then I hit the first hurdle and fall flat on my face. My parents and teachers are yelling at me from the sidelines “ try harder, the other kids are making it down the track ok, you must be lazy or slow”. Pulling myself up I try running faster and fall even harder after hitting the next hurdle. Then someone takes the time to show me how to run hurdles and like an Olympic hurdler, I outrun the other classmates. The key, though, is that I have to do it differently, the way that works best for me. Learning is like a tailored suit; it takes a while and is unique to everyone.- G. Sagmiller
1)Dyslexia: A Hidden Disability
2) Dyslexia--the Signs to Look For
Dyslexia is a very broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person's fluency or comprehension accuracy in being able to read, and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, or rapid naming. Dyslexia is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. It is believed that dyslexia can affect between 5 to 10 percent of a given population although there have been no studies to indicate an accurate percentage.
There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional. Reading disabilities, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability, although in research literature it is considered to be a receptive language-based learning disability.
Accomplished adult dyslexics may be able to read with good comprehension, but they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and may perform more poorly at nonsense word reading (a measure of phonological awareness) and spelling. Dyslexia is not an intellectual disability, since dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated, as a result of cognition developing independently.
It is difficult to obtain a certain diagnosis of dyslexia before a child begins school, but many dyslexic individuals have a history of difficulties that began well before kindergarten. Children who exhibit these symptoms early in life have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as dyslexic than other children. These symptoms include:
delays in speech
slow learning of new words
difficulty in rhyming words, as in nursery rhymes
low letter knowledge
letter reversal or mirror writing (for example, "Я" instead of "R")
Early primary school children
Difficulty learning the alphabet or letter order
Difficulty with associating sounds with the letters that represent them (sound-symbol correspondence)
Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness)
Difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words (phonemic awareness)
Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems
Difficulty learning to decode written words
Difficulty distinguishing between similar sounds in words; mixing up sounds in polysyllabic words (auditory
discrimination) (for example, "aminal" for animal, "bisghetti" for spaghetti)
Older primary school children
Slow or inaccurate reading (although these individuals can read to an extent)
Very poor spelling which has been called dysorthographia (orthographic coding)
Difficulty reading out loud, reading words in the wrong order, skipping words and sometimes saying a word similar to another word (auditory processing disorder)
Difficulty associating individual words with their correct meanings
Difficulty with time keeping and concept of time when doing a certain task
Difficulty with organization skills (working memory)
Children with dyslexia may fail to see (and occasionally to hear) similarities and differences in letters and words, may not recognize the spacing that organizes letters into separate words, and may be unable to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word (auditory processing disorder)
Tendencies to omit or add letters or words when writing and reading
Secondary school children and adults
Some people with dyslexia are able to disguise their weaknesses, even from themselves. Many students reach higher education before they encounter the threshold at which they are no longer able to compensate for their learning weaknesses.
One common misconception about dyslexia is that dyslexic readers write words backwards or move letters around when reading. In fact, this only occurs in a very small population of dyslexic readers. Dyslexic people are better identified by writing that does not seem to match their level of intelligence from prior observations. Additionally, dyslexic people often substitute similar-looking, but unrelated, words in place of the ones intended (what/want, say/saw, help/held, run/fun, fell/fall, to/too, who/how etc.).